Um hard to say. It's possible they might be able to smell the saliva of the dog, but they also might not. Will they become furious? In my experience, no. Dogs don't really think the same way we do. Would a dog try to protect you if they saw another dog try to bite you? Depending on a number of factors, maybe. But if they see another dog has bitten you, and understand that is what happened, they're still probably going to be more concerned about helping you "clean" the wound. (Ever notice how dogs like to lick your wounds? That is why.)
I used to work at a doggy daycare, and I adopted a dog that was going to that doggy daycare. She of course loves me very much, and a lot of the dogs at that daycare do too. But when a dog would become aggressive, I never wanted these dogs to jump in, and they would usually take my cue and back off. I was worried my girl would try to protect, but once when another dog tried to be aggressive to her, and I pulled the dog off, and put myself between them, and reprimanded the mean dog, my girl totally got it. She was unsure before of whether to do a defend, but I gave her a cue to let me be the defender, and she has been such a good girl, and even stopped in the middle of defending herself once because she noticed I was close! And this is a dog that can defend herself. Some dogs would try to defend you from a dog biting, but some will trust you to handle the situation. If I was down and wanted her help, I know my girl would be there in a second. But I was so proud when she kept from biting a family member's dog that jumped on her back and tried to start something, and she stopped mid head turn, and looked at me, and I was already halfway there to throw that mean doggy off and say upset words to that dog. She was so proud of herself too, it was so cute.
If she smelled a bite mark from another dog, she would be concerned, and want to lick it clean, but she wouldn't be upset. She would believe I received the wound stopping a dog from being naughty, and she would assume I "won."
Even my bf's past dog who was incredibly protective of us didn't get angry if we came home with a dog bite. He would just focus on doing whatever he could to allow us to let him lick it, as he was convinced that would be best thing medically. Whatever happened happened, and dog's don't usually think about all the factors that might have led to that.