The borders of "Germany" have changed four times since the unification of Germany in 1871. You would need to consult a good historical atlas to get a sense of which areas were within Germany at any particular time. Note also that two "departments" of France (Alsace and Lorraine) were incorporated into Germany in 1871, given back to France in 1919, taken over by Nazi Germany in 1940, and given back to France in 1945.
Historically, there have been many changes in the Germanic lands over the centuries. For many centuries, the Germanic lands formed the heartland of the Holy Roman Empire - no connection with the pope in Rome, and sometimes in verbal or physical conflict with the pope.
The most recent change in Germany was in 1989, when East and West Germany (split in 1945) were re-united. As I was learning German in the early 1960s, we knew of the "aspiration" for re-unification but also knew that nobody could see how it could happen, with eastern Germany being under a communist regime. Note also that Germany lost about 100 miles of territory to Poland at that time, and that Poland lost about 100 miles of territory to Russia at that time - basically, Poland moved about 100 miles westwards! Thus the German capital, Berlin, is now very much towards the east of Germany. In earlier times it was more central.
The above is a basic look at the political geography of Germanic central Europe over the last 1,000 years and more. And you thought that there was going to be a simple answer to your question!
Note also that the "countries" you mention were not countries in the sense that France or the UK or Russia were countries at that time.