A SLOWLY PROGRESSIVE, DEGENERATIVE DISORDER OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Parkinson's disease has several distinguishing characteristics; tremor( shaking), when at rest, sluggish initiation of movements, and muscle rigidity.
Deep with in the brain is an area known as the basal ganglia. When the brain initiates an action such as lifting the arm, nerve cells in the basal ganglia help smooth the movements and coordinate changes in posture. The basal ganglia process signals and transmit messages to he deep lying thalamus, which relays the processed information back to the cerebral cortex. All these signals are transmitted by chemical neurotransmitters as electrical impulses along nerve pathways and between nerves. The main neurotransmitter of the basal ganglia is dopamine.
In Parkinson' disease, nerve cells in the basal ganglia degenerate, resulting in lower production of dopamine and fewer connections with other nerve cells and muscles. The cause of the nerve cell degeneration and dopamine loss is usually unknown, however it seems genetics does not appear to play a major role, although the disease tends to occur in some families.
THIS DISEAS IS USUALLY TREATED WITH A VARITY OF DRUGS,
levodopa, bromocriptine, pergolide, selegiline, anticholinergics, antihistamines, anti depressants, propranolol, and amantadine .None of these drugs cures the disease,,,,, or stops its progression,,,,,, but they help make movements easier and they prolong functional life for many years.