Politics in India before 1947:
Indian politics before 1947 dates back to the Indian Councils Act of 1861.
continues through the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909, the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms, 1919, and the Government of India Act of 1935.
At each of these reforms, the involvement of Indians in the central and state legislatures and in the executive councils was increased and the permission was extended to ever larger numbers of people.
It has often been noted in particular that there was a significant degree of continuity between the Government of India Act and the Constitution of India.
Politics in India after 1947 :
Caste and religion are an important part of politics in India and these factors to a great extent helps to shape the political culture of the country.
After independence the federal government of India has been led by the Indian National Congress.
Contemporary politics of India have been dominated by a number of national parties including the INC, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI (M)) and various regional parties.
From 1950 to 1990, except for two brief periods, the INC enjoyed a parliamentary majority. In 1989.
a Janata Dal-led National Front coalition in alliance with the Left Front coalition won the elections but managed to stay in power for only two years.
As the 1991 elections gave no political party a majority, the INC formed a minority government under Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao and was able to complete its five-year term.
The BJP formed a government for a short time in 1996, followed by the United Front coalition that excluded both the BJP and the INC.
In 1998, the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) with some other parties and became the first non-Congress government to complete a full five-year term of governance.
In the year 2004 Indian elections, the INC won the largest number of Lok Sabha seats and formed a government with an alliance called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), which was supported by various Left-leaning parties and members opposed to the BJP.
The UPA again came into power in the 2009 general election; though, the representation of the Left leaning parties within the coalition has considerably reduced. Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1962 to be re-elected after completing full five-year tenure.
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