Minimum wage was never meant to support your life. It was meant to give teenagers and first-time job seekers experience in the workforce so that they could move on to bigger and better things, like bigger and better jobs and salaries.
To whom much is given, much is required. People who make high salaries, by and large, did not actually luck into their positions. They finished high school, went to college or trade school, learned a skill, and went to work at a minimum wage job. Then they worked hard and moved up the ladder, making more money along the way. With each new job came new responsibilities and requirements; i.e., because much was required, much was given.
Juxtapose that to the person who never goes on to learn a skill that requires actual knowledge of how to do something, like a doctor or an engineer, a plumber or electrician, just someone who floats through life going from one low-skilled job to the next. What has that person done to show that he is trustworthy with the responsibility of earning a higher-paying job? Nothing. In fact, quite the opposite.
Corporations do pay living wages, and they pay a lot more than that: Vacation time, sick time, PTO, 401ks, insurance, continuing education programs, even college tuition. Your problem is you believe the salary of the assistant, who files and types and answers phones, is somehow worth the same as the CEO who is responsible for the overall health of the corporation: Employees, benefits, future business. Having been an executive assistant myself for many years, I can tell you that neither my job nor my salary was ever worth the same as the CEO's.
Further, public companies are required by law to earn as much money for their investors as possible. Who is the investor? You are. Any person who has a retirement fund or IRA or 401k is the investor the corporation is making money for. Your retirement fund is invested into stocks and bonds of those public companies, and those stocks and bonds cause your retirement fund to grow so that you can retire. Or do you believe that all those companies just sprinkle fairy dust on your account?
When one can do what a businessperson does, then one will earn the salary that the businessperson does. But if one continually seeks low-skill, minimum wage jobs because that's all they know how to do, why should they earn more?