# In excel what's the difference between absolute, relative and mixed?

In excel what's the difference between the cell reference relative, mixed and absolute?

Relevance

Relative reference:  When you copy a cell, the reference moves as well.

For example, if you have a formula in cell D10 which says "=A1+B2" and you copy D10 to D12, the formula in D12 would automatically change to "A3+B4".  (you moved 2 rows down in the same column).

If you copied D10 to F12, F12 would say "=B3+C4". (You moved 2 rows down AND one column to the right.)

Absolute reference:  You hold the reference to an exact cell regardless of where you copy it to.

D10 formula says, "=\$A\$1 + \$B\$2".  No matter where you copy D10 to, the resulting formula will always say "=\$A\$1 + \$B\$2".

Mixed:  You use both in one formula so that some references move and some don't.

D10 formula says, "=\$A1 + B\$2".  Copy D10 to D12, the formula in D12 would change to "\$A3+B\$2". (The column stayed the same b/c of where D10 was copied to.  The second row reference stayed because '\$2' means don't move that row reference.)

If you copied D10 to F12, F12 would say "=\$A3+C\$2". (\$A and \$2 don't move b/c of the absolute reference, but the column and row with them without the \$ do as they are relative references.)