How do membrane proteins contribute to the membrane potential?
A. The sodium potassium pump results in a net positive charge that stores energy as voltage B. The proton pump results in the attraction of cations to the negative intracellular membrane C. The attraction of anions inside the cell contributes to the positive extracellular environment D. Aquaporins result in a combination of positive charges intracellular and negative charges extracellularly
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Instead of allowing a relatively fast ow of solutes through the membrane, transport proteins move solutes across the membrane in discrete quanta by binding to the solute on one side of the membrane, changing conformation so as to bring the solute to the other side of the membrane, and then releasing the solute.